Development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, community, or individual are improved. It may involve the creation of a new product or service, such as a new medical technology or new academic curriculum. It also involves the expansion of an existing product or service, such as expanding a business.
Developing countries often have traditional economies, which rely on agriculture and production for their own needs. These traditional economies produce food, clothing, and household goods, as well as trade with developed nations for raw materials.
How a country develops is largely determined by its own set of goals and priorities. These priorities are identified through a variety of national policies and measures, including the Human Development Index (HDI), which is a UN standardised measure of a country’s achievement in three areas: life expectancy, adult literacy and school enrollment, and standard of living measured by Gross Domestic Product per capita.
The United Nations defines development as an all-encompassing component of an individual’s well-being, which includes physical health and well-being, education, social and cultural opportunities, economic freedom and stability, and environmental protection. The HDI is used to rate countries on their level of development and compare them with each other.
There are many different theories of how people and societies develop. Some theorists believe that human development is a result of biological inheritance or the environment around us, while others think it is more about people being active and exploring their world and constructing their own futures through the affordances of their environments.